Visual Aids

On line

List of Software
Mac & PC

  • Commercial and Free Astronomy Software
  • Cosmic Zoom    (A Scientific Visualization of our Universe)
    Instructor:  Garry T. Stasiuk
    There is no assigned text book, but at the end of this outline are some books for suggested reading.

    Before We Begin our Journey
     
    What is Science?
    What is a Theory?
    Testing an Hypothesis
    The Scientific Method
    The paradigm
    The scientific creed
     
     
    Cosmogony ---Study of the contents of the Universe
     
        A: Overview ---A Grand Tour of the Universe
     
                i. Emphasis how our view (Paradigm) has changed with improvement in Technology    ---new facts + new knowledge = new paradigm.
     
                ii. Any theory of the creation of the Universe must be able to explain everything we see.  eg)  why is ALMOST everything WE HAVE SEEN IS HEAVILY cratered?
     
            
    Catalogue of Contents:
     
        
     The Solar System
             Contents
                Planets
                     Terrestrial - Largest Earth 7,927 Miles IN DIAMETER
                     Gas Giants  -Largest Jupiter 88,700 Miles in Diameter
                Moons
                     Solid
                     Ice
                 Asteroids
                 Comets
     
              Sun
                     Yellow Dwarf
              Distance
                 Measured in Millions/Billions of Miles
                     Venus 25 million miles (closest)
                     Pluto 3 billion 664 million miles
     
     The Nearest/farthest Star -- Naked eye
              Proxima Centauri
                 Distance measured in Light Years 4.17
                 4.17 years in the past
              The farthest star visible to the naked eye iota scorpii 3500 ly
              Smallest --Jupiter sized (Dwarfs)
              Largest-- solar system sized (Super Giants)
     
     
    Interstellar Gas & Dust
              The Nebulae
                 found in spiral arms 10's of thousands ly in diameter.
                
    Farthest object visible to the naked eye
              GSC's -
                 M-4 -distance 9,100 LY
                 NGC 7006 -distance 160,000 LY
                 contain  equivalent of 60,000 to 6,000,000 sun's
                    Size 60 - 300 LY in diameter
              Magellanic Clouds
                 Large 170,000 LY
                    30,000 LY in diameter
     
                 Small 190,000 LY
                    25,000 LY in diameter
             The Great Galaxy Andromeda
                     2,200,000 LY (150,000 LY in Diameter (bigger than Milky Way))
            
    The Local Group
                 21 galaxies (most are dwarfs)
     
    Galactic Clusters
             We are part of the Virgo Cluster
                 Center is 64 million LY from Milky Way
                 Aproximately 1000 known clusters
                    Closest Virgo Cluster
                         65 million LY
                    farthest Hydra
                         3.3 billion LY
                    Largest Galaxy in a cluster
                        Virgo
                            elliptical - 400,000 LY in Diameter
                             Contains 500 billion suns
                    
     
            The Super Clusters
     
                Clusters of clusters
                Long filaments of Galaxies how long or far back in spacetime still a mystery.
                    Coma Cluster
                     30 million ly across
                     spans 200 million ly of space
                Hercules super cluster
                     330 Million LY Long center 700 million light years distant
                     Cosmic Voids
                 The volume between the super clusters
                    Up to 300 million ly deep.
                    Largest suspected void in North polar sky
                        30 x 1024 cubic ly
     
    The quasars (Caveat)
            Either      Gravitational red shift
            or          Cosmological red shift
                     Distances range from 3 to 12 billion LY
     
     Edge of the Observable Universe
                 12 - 20 billion ly
                    Current accepted value 13.7 Billion LY
     
                                                                    
     
     What do we know about the contents -Pieces of the Puzzle
         Inventory
            Sun (star)
            Planets
                Moons, asteroids, and comets
            Stars
                dwarfs
                Main sequence
                Sub-Giants
                Giants
                Super Giants
            Nebulae
            Star clusters
                Open
                GSC's
            Galaxies
                Spirals,
                Lenticular
                Elliptical
                Irregular
            Galactic Clusters
            Super Clusters
            Galactic Voids
            Quasars
     
        The Sun as a star
            Stable (yellow dwarf)
     
         The H-R Diagram
     
         Y-axis
                Magnitude
                Brightness (Luminosity)
              X-Axis
                Spectral Type
                Surface Temperature
                Colour
     
        
     
     
     Evolution of a 1 solar Mass Star (the Sun)
            Nebula
            T-Tauri
            Main Sequence
            Red Giant
            Nova
            White Dwarf (C-N-O)
         
        Evolution of a 5 - 8 solar mass star
            Star explodes (fusion stops at C-N-O)
            No remnant
     
          Evolution of a 8 - 80 solar mass star (Super Giant)
             Shell detonation
                blows off envelope
                leaves collapsed core (does the collapse go on for ever?)
                 path C -> Ne -> Si, Fe (stops at Fe)
     
        End Points
     
     
    White Dwarfs
     
    Neutron Stars
     
    Black Holes
    Radius
    1000 - 10000 Km
    10 - 100 Km
     0
    Density
    106 to 108 gm/cm3
    1014
    infinite
    Initial mass
    M < 5 solar masses
    M > 8 solar Masses
    ?
    M (remnant)
    M< 1.4 SolarM
    M> .7 SolarM  
    M<3.2 SolarM
    M > 3.2 Solar M
                     
        Galactic Evolution
                 From Quasar to Galaxy?
                    Quasar
                    N-Types
                    Seyferts
                    Normals
     
                                                                    
       The Mobius demo
     
      The Ginzberg Equation 1 = 10
     
      Developing a Cosmology
         Mythology
             Ancient Mythologies
                All cultures develop a cosmology...
                
         Newton's Universe
             Space and Time
             Gravity is Force acting at a distance
             Einstein Gravity is curved space.
             Universal Laws
                Generalized Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
                Developed Universal Law of Gravitation
                     F= G * Mm/r*r
     
         Geometry = Motion
            self evident truth?
     
                Euclid,  Lobachevski
                    Euclid 3 angles of a triangle = 180 degrees
                    5th axiom? line through point of a line // to line.
                    C=2Pir
                    0 Curvature
                    
     
                Lobachevsky
                    1826 3 angles less than 180 degrees
                    2 or more lines // through point outside line.
                    negative curvature
                    Infinite
                    C>2PIr
                    -Potato Chip
        
                Riemann
                    no line through point is // to other line
                    angles of a triangle more than 180 degrees
                    great circles aren't infinite
                    Finite (no boundaries)
                    C<2PIr --Orange peel
     
             Einstein's Universe    ----Thought Experiments
             The Special Theory of Relativity (All Motion is Relative)
                 Speed of Light is Constant.
                 Motion Relative to observer
                    Imagine that all that exists is Box A, Box B and you the outside observer. A approcahes B at 1/2 C, B approaches A at 1/2 C... What do you see.  Who is right? 3 different frames of reference.
                    
                 Lorentz contraction -Time dilation
                           Space & Time = Space-Time
                     E = mc2
     
             The Principle of Equivalence    
                 Gravity = Acceleration
                 In Box -Falling in 1 g or in Orbit
                 In Box -Sitting on Earth or accelerating at 1 g
                =>gravity distorts our view of the universe.
                
        
             The General Theory of Relativity
                 Shift in the perihelion of a planet. Mercury
                 Light is red shifted in a strong G field. White Dwarf     
                       Light is deflected by a gravitational field. Eclipse        
     
        
     
         The Black Hole
             The Space-Time Diagram
             Frozen Star
             Rotating Black Hole
             Evaporating Black Hole
     
         The Quantum Universe    
             A Quark for Mister Muster
             The Quantum Family
             Quantum Puzzles
     
                                                                  
      
      Cosmology
             Big Bang
                   Steady State
     
      Paradigm Shift
         The Chaotic Universe
            Closed vs Open
            Linear vs. Non-Linear.
            STRING  and  other theories
     
    A Suggested Reading List      Check them out at your local library!
     
        A: A Brief History Of Time
                 The Universe in a Nutshell
            From the Big bang to Black Holes
            by Stephen Hawking
     
        B: The Planets DVD or VHS (BBC production)
        
        E:  The Red Limit (Or other books by)
            by Timothy Ferris
        
        F: Universe  by Robert Dinwiddie, Philip Eales, David Hughes, Ian Nicholson, Ian Ridpath, Giles Sparrow, Pam Spence, Carole Stott, Kevin Tildsley, Martin Rees
        
        G: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Universe (Hardcover)
    by Ian Ridpath (Foreword), Sir Martin Rees (Editor)
     
        H: What's Out There : Images from Here to the Edge of the Universe by Stephen Hawking (Foreword), Mary K. Baumann, Will Hopkins, Loralee Nolletti, Michael Soluri
        I: The Stargazer's Guide to the Universe : A Complete Visual Guide to Interpreting the Cosmos (Hardcover)
    by Robin Kerrod
     
        J: The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory Brian Greene / Paperback / Random House Adult Trade Publishing Group / February 2000
     
    Magazines
     
        A: Sky & Telescope
                  Sky Publishing Corp
                PO Box 9111
                Belmont, MA 02178 9918
            $24.00 /year            
     
        B: Astronomy Magazine
            2.   Kalmbach Publishing
                21027 Cross Roads Circle
                Waukesha, WI 51387
            $24.00 / Year
     
        C: Science News
            3.   Subscription Dept
                231 West Center St
                Marion, OH 43305
            $34.50 / year
        D: Discover
            4.  Discover
                PO Box 420105
                Palm Coast, FL 32142
              $36.00 / year
        
    Videos
     
        A: The Astronomers (PBS Series)
        B: Carl Sagan's, Cosmos (PBS Series) (Science Channel)
        C; The Elegant Universe
     
         
    Science Fiction
        A: Earth         By David Brin Published by Bantam Specta Books
        B: Forward, Robert Dragon's Egg. 1981, Ballantine. Sequel is called Starquake 1985.