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  • Cosmic Zoom    (A Scientific Visualization of our Universe)
    Instructor:  Garry T. Stasiuk
    There is no assigned text book, but at the end of this outline are some books for suggested reading.

    Before We Begin our Journey
    What is Science?
    What is a Theory?
    Testing an Hypothesis
    The Scientific Method
    The paradigm
    The scientific creed
    Cosmogony ---Study of the contents of the Universe
        A: Overview ---A Grand Tour of the Universe
                i. Emphasis how our view (Paradigm) has changed with improvement in Technology    ---new facts + new knowledge = new paradigm.
                ii. Any theory of the creation of the Universe must be able to explain everything we see.  eg)  why is ALMOST everything WE HAVE SEEN IS HEAVILY cratered?
    Catalogue of Contents:
     The Solar System
                     Terrestrial - Largest Earth 7,927 Miles IN DIAMETER
                     Gas Giants  -Largest Jupiter 88,700 Miles in Diameter
                     Yellow Dwarf
                 Measured in Millions/Billions of Miles
                     Venus 25 million miles (closest)
                     Pluto 3 billion 664 million miles
     The Nearest/farthest Star -- Naked eye
              Proxima Centauri
                 Distance measured in Light Years 4.17
                 4.17 years in the past
              The farthest star visible to the naked eye iota scorpii 3500 ly
              Smallest --Jupiter sized (Dwarfs)
              Largest-- solar system sized (Super Giants)
    Interstellar Gas & Dust
              The Nebulae
                 found in spiral arms 10's of thousands ly in diameter.
    Farthest object visible to the naked eye
              GSC's -
                 M-4 -distance 9,100 LY
                 NGC 7006 -distance 160,000 LY
                 contain  equivalent of 60,000 to 6,000,000 sun's
                    Size 60 - 300 LY in diameter
              Magellanic Clouds
                 Large 170,000 LY
                    30,000 LY in diameter
                 Small 190,000 LY
                    25,000 LY in diameter
             The Great Galaxy Andromeda
                     2,200,000 LY (150,000 LY in Diameter (bigger than Milky Way))
    The Local Group
                 21 galaxies (most are dwarfs)
    Galactic Clusters
             We are part of the Virgo Cluster
                 Center is 64 million LY from Milky Way
                 Aproximately 1000 known clusters
                    Closest Virgo Cluster
                         65 million LY
                    farthest Hydra
                         3.3 billion LY
                    Largest Galaxy in a cluster
                            elliptical - 400,000 LY in Diameter
                             Contains 500 billion suns
            The Super Clusters
                Clusters of clusters
                Long filaments of Galaxies how long or far back in spacetime still a mystery.
                    Coma Cluster
                     30 million ly across
                     spans 200 million ly of space
                Hercules super cluster
                     330 Million LY Long center 700 million light years distant
                     Cosmic Voids
                 The volume between the super clusters
                    Up to 300 million ly deep.
                    Largest suspected void in North polar sky
                        30 x 1024 cubic ly
    The quasars (Caveat)
            Either      Gravitational red shift
            or          Cosmological red shift
                     Distances range from 3 to 12 billion LY
     Edge of the Observable Universe
                 12 - 20 billion ly
                    Current accepted value 13.7 Billion LY
     What do we know about the contents -Pieces of the Puzzle
            Sun (star)
                Moons, asteroids, and comets
                Main sequence
                Super Giants
            Star clusters
            Galactic Clusters
            Super Clusters
            Galactic Voids
        The Sun as a star
            Stable (yellow dwarf)
         The H-R Diagram
                Brightness (Luminosity)
                Spectral Type
                Surface Temperature
     Evolution of a 1 solar Mass Star (the Sun)
            Main Sequence
            Red Giant
            White Dwarf (C-N-O)
        Evolution of a 5 - 8 solar mass star
            Star explodes (fusion stops at C-N-O)
            No remnant
          Evolution of a 8 - 80 solar mass star (Super Giant)
             Shell detonation
                blows off envelope
                leaves collapsed core (does the collapse go on for ever?)
                 path C -> Ne -> Si, Fe (stops at Fe)
        End Points
    White Dwarfs
    Neutron Stars
    Black Holes
    1000 - 10000 Km
    10 - 100 Km
    106 to 108 gm/cm3
    Initial mass
    M < 5 solar masses
    M > 8 solar Masses
    M (remnant)
    M< 1.4 SolarM
    M> .7 SolarM  
    M<3.2 SolarM
    M > 3.2 Solar M
        Galactic Evolution
                 From Quasar to Galaxy?
       The Mobius demo
      The Ginzberg Equation 1 = 10
      Developing a Cosmology
             Ancient Mythologies
                All cultures develop a cosmology...
         Newton's Universe
             Space and Time
             Gravity is Force acting at a distance
             Einstein Gravity is curved space.
             Universal Laws
                Generalized Kepler's Laws of Planetary Motion
                Developed Universal Law of Gravitation
                     F= G * Mm/r*r
         Geometry = Motion
            self evident truth?
                Euclid,  Lobachevski
                    Euclid 3 angles of a triangle = 180 degrees
                    5th axiom? line through point of a line // to line.
                    0 Curvature
                    1826 3 angles less than 180 degrees
                    2 or more lines // through point outside line.
                    negative curvature
                    -Potato Chip
                    no line through point is // to other line
                    angles of a triangle more than 180 degrees
                    great circles aren't infinite
                    Finite (no boundaries)
                    C<2PIr --Orange peel
             Einstein's Universe    ----Thought Experiments
             The Special Theory of Relativity (All Motion is Relative)
                 Speed of Light is Constant.
                 Motion Relative to observer
                    Imagine that all that exists is Box A, Box B and you the outside observer. A approcahes B at 1/2 C, B approaches A at 1/2 C... What do you see.  Who is right? 3 different frames of reference.
                 Lorentz contraction -Time dilation
                           Space & Time = Space-Time
                     E = mc2
             The Principle of Equivalence    
                 Gravity = Acceleration
                 In Box -Falling in 1 g or in Orbit
                 In Box -Sitting on Earth or accelerating at 1 g
                =>gravity distorts our view of the universe.
             The General Theory of Relativity
                 Shift in the perihelion of a planet. Mercury
                 Light is red shifted in a strong G field. White Dwarf     
                       Light is deflected by a gravitational field. Eclipse        
         The Black Hole
             The Space-Time Diagram
             Frozen Star
             Rotating Black Hole
             Evaporating Black Hole
         The Quantum Universe    
             A Quark for Mister Muster
             The Quantum Family
             Quantum Puzzles
             Big Bang
                   Steady State
      Paradigm Shift
         The Chaotic Universe
            Closed vs Open
            Linear vs. Non-Linear.
            STRING  and  other theories
    A Suggested Reading List      Check them out at your local library!
        A: A Brief History Of Time
                 The Universe in a Nutshell
            From the Big bang to Black Holes
            by Stephen Hawking
        B: The Planets DVD or VHS (BBC production)
        E:  The Red Limit (Or other books by)
            by Timothy Ferris
        F: Universe  by Robert Dinwiddie, Philip Eales, David Hughes, Ian Nicholson, Ian Ridpath, Giles Sparrow, Pam Spence, Carole Stott, Kevin Tildsley, Martin Rees
        G: The Illustrated Encyclopedia of the Universe (Hardcover)
    by Ian Ridpath (Foreword), Sir Martin Rees (Editor)
        H: What's Out There : Images from Here to the Edge of the Universe by Stephen Hawking (Foreword), Mary K. Baumann, Will Hopkins, Loralee Nolletti, Michael Soluri
        I: The Stargazer's Guide to the Universe : A Complete Visual Guide to Interpreting the Cosmos (Hardcover)
    by Robin Kerrod
        J: The Elegant Universe: Superstrings, Hidden Dimensions, and the Quest for the Ultimate Theory Brian Greene / Paperback / Random House Adult Trade Publishing Group / February 2000
        A: Sky & Telescope
                  Sky Publishing Corp
                PO Box 9111
                Belmont, MA 02178 9918
            $24.00 /year            
        B: Astronomy Magazine
            2.   Kalmbach Publishing
                21027 Cross Roads Circle
                Waukesha, WI 51387
            $24.00 / Year
        C: Science News
            3.   Subscription Dept
                231 West Center St
                Marion, OH 43305
            $34.50 / year
        D: Discover
            4.  Discover
                PO Box 420105
                Palm Coast, FL 32142
              $36.00 / year
        A: The Astronomers (PBS Series)
        B: Carl Sagan's, Cosmos (PBS Series) (Science Channel)
        C; The Elegant Universe
    Science Fiction
        A: Earth         By David Brin Published by Bantam Specta Books
        B: Forward, Robert Dragon's Egg. 1981, Ballantine. Sequel is called Starquake 1985.